V 134. Gluboky Yar. Graffiti, Х–XIIth century C.E.

Monument

Type

Wall. 

Material

Limestone. 

Dimensions (cm)

H. 47.0, W. 68.0.

Additional description

Rock wall. Letters are very weathered. 

Place of Origin

Gluboky Yar. 

Find place

Gluboky Yar. 

Find context

Cave church, north wall, centre, at human height level. 

Find circumstances

2004, survey of I.V. Nenevolya. 

Modern location

In situ. 

Institution and inventory

In situ, no inventory number. 

Autopsy

September 2005, July 2012. 

Epigraphic field 1

Position

Top left. 

Lettering

Graffito, cursive. Alpha with a loop. Abbreviations. 

Letterheights (cm)

1.0–3.5.

Text 1

Category

Invocative inscription. 

Date

2nd half of the ХI–XIIth century C.E. 

Dating criteria

Epigraphical context, palaeography. 

Editions

Unpublished. 

Edition

Κ(ύρι)ε, βοήθη
το͂ δούλο σου
Σαβᾷ.

Diplomatic

ΚΕΒΟΗΘΗ
ΤΟΔΟΥΛΟΣΟΥ
ΣΑΒΑ

EpiDoc (XML)

<div type="textpart" subtype="inscription" n="1">
      <ab>
      <lb n="1"/><roleName><expan><abbr>Κ</abbr><ex>ύρι</ex><abbr>ε</abbr></expan></roleName>, βοήθη
      <lb n="2"/>το͂ δούλο σου
      <lb n="3"/>Σαβᾷ.
      </ab>
   </div> 

Translation

Lord, help your servant Sabbas.

 

Commentary

All graffiti were found inscribed on the north wall of a cave church, which was part of a small architectural complex, most likely monastic. According to S.V. Kharitonov, the discovery of this church made by A.I. Markevich already in the early XXth century, remained unpublished. Its liturgical organization (prothesis in the naos) suggests a date in the Xth century. Another graffito, dated to 1522/1523 C.E. and located under Text 9, indicates that the church was in use until the middle of the XVIth century.

1–2. On the formula, see Introduction IV.3.E.a.

3. A well-known Christian name Sabas is not otherwise attested in Crimea.

 

Images

Epigraphic field 2

Position

Right of Text 1. 

Lettering

Graffito, uncial; elongated letters. 

Letterheights (cm)

2.0–3.7.

Text 2

Category

Epitaph. 

Date

1034 C.E. 

Dating criteria

Epigraphical context, palaeography. 

Editions

Unpublished. 

Edition

[Ἐτ]ελεύ-
τ̣η̣σεν.

Diplomatic

[..]ΕΛΕΥ
..ΣΕΝ

EpiDoc (XML)

<div type="textpart" subtype="inscription" n="2">
      <ab>
      <lb n="1"/><supplied reason="lost">Ἐτ</supplied>ελεύ<lb n="2" break="no"/><unclear>τη</unclear>σεν.
      </ab>
   </div> 

Translation

Died.

 

Commentary

On the formula, see Introduction IV.3.F.g. Text 2 was apparently begun and then abandoned (possibly due to the unevenness of the surface) and re-inscribed as Text 8.

 

Images

Epigraphic field 3

Position

Right of Text 2. 

Lettering

Graffito, uncial. Alpha with a loop, pi with extended horizontal. 

Letterheights (cm)

0.8–2.5.

Text 3

Category

Commemoration (?). 

Date

982 C.E. 

Dating criteria

Epigraphical context. 

Editions

Unpublished. 

Edition

Ἐπὴ ἔτ(ους) ͵ςυ̣Ϟ̣(?)´,
ἔγραψα ἐν γενοαρ[ί]ο
vac. ιβ(?)´,
ἀ[μ]ήν.

Diplomatic

ΕΠΗΕΤΣ..(?)
ΕΓΡΑΨΑΕΝΓΕΝΟΑΡ[.]Ο
      ΙΒ(?)
Α[.]ΗΝ

EpiDoc (XML)

<div type="textpart" subtype="inscription" n="3">
      <ab>
      <lb n="1"/>Ἐπὴ <date><expan><abbr>ἔτ</abbr><ex>ους</ex></expan>
      <num value="6490">ς<unclear>υϞ</unclear><certainty locus="value" match=".." cert="low"/></num>,
      <lb n="2"/>ἔγραψα ἐν <rs type="month" ref="ian">γενοαρ<supplied reason="lost">ί</supplied>ο</rs>
      <lb n="3"/><space unit="character"/>
      <num value="12">ιβ<certainty locus="value" match=".." cert="low"/></num></date>,
      <lb n="4"/>ἀ<supplied reason="lost">μ</supplied>ήν.
      </ab>
   </div> 

Translation

In the year 6490 (?) I wrote on the 12th (?) of January. Amen.

 

Commentary

This is probably a commemorative inscription: the closest analogy is SEG 33.1324, from Kellias in Egypt, VIIth (?) century (ἔγραψα [ἐν] Ἰανουαρίῳ κζ´).

1. In the last digit of the year date, only the left top loop can be discerned, and in referring to single and double digits it can be only a stigma or a koppa. A stigma would make the year 898 C.E., which should be excluded on palaeographic grounds, while the second possibility (with koppa) gives us 982 C.E., which puts the date of this text very close to Texts 9 and 10 (980-981 C.E.). The earliest inscriptions at Gluboky Yar in that case would be contemporary with V 172 (994–995 C.E.) from Mangup, possibly indicating intensified building activities in Mountainous Crimea at the end of the Xth century.

2. The same form of name for January is found in Ramsay, Bell 1909, 557, № 60.

 

Images

Epigraphic field 4

Position

Below Text 3, on the left. 

Lettering

Graffito, minuscule. 

Letterheights (cm)

0.8–2.5.

Text 4

Category

Invocative inscription. 

Date

2nd half of ХI–XIIth century C.E. 

Dating criteria

Epigraphical context, palaeography. 

Editions

Unpublished. 

Edition

Κύρυε, βοήθ[ει].

Diplomatic

ΚΥΡΥΕΒΟΗΘ[..]

EpiDoc (XML)

<div type="textpart" subtype="inscription" n="4">
      <ab>
      <lb n="1"/><roleName>Κύρυε</roleName>, βοήθ<supplied reason="lost">ει</supplied>.
      </ab>
   </div> 

Translation

Lord, help.

 

Commentary

On the formula, see Introduction IV.3.E.a.

 

Images

Epigraphic field 5

Position

Below Text 3. 

Lettering

Graffito, minuscule. 

Letterheights (cm)

3.0–7.0.

Text 5

Category

Invocative inscription. 

Date

2nd half of ХI–XIIth century C.E. 

Dating criteria

Epigraphical context, palaeography. 

Editions

Unpublished. 

Edition

Κίριε βοίθι (?)

Diplomatic

ΚΙΡΙΕΒΟΙΘΙ(?)

EpiDoc (XML)

<div type="textpart" subtype="inscription" n="5">
      <ab>
      <lb n="1"/><roleName>Κίριε</roleName> βοίθι <certainty locus="value" match=".." cert="low"/>
      </ab>
   </div> 

Translation

Lord, help.

 

Commentary

On the formula, see Introduction IV.3.E.a.

 

Images

Epigraphic field 6

Position

Below Text 3, on the right. 

Lettering

Graffito, uncial. 

Letterheights (cm)

0.8–2.5.

Text 6

Category

Invocative inscription. 

Date

2nd–3rd third of XIth century C.E. 

Dating criteria

Epigraphical context, palaeography. 

Editions

Unpublished. 

Edition

Κ(ύρι)ε, [βο]ύθυ φοβου[μένοις σε].

Diplomatic

ΚΕ[..]ΥΘΥΦΟΒΟΥ[........]

EpiDoc (XML)

<div type="textpart" subtype="inscription" n="6">
      <ab>
      <lb n="1"/><roleName><expan><abbr>Κ</abbr><ex>ύρι</ex><abbr>ε</abbr></expan></roleName>, <supplied reason="lost">βο</supplied>ύθυ φοβου<supplied reason="lost">μένοις</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">σε</supplied>.
      </ab>
   </div> 

Translation

Lord, help those who fear you.

 

Commentary

On the formula, see Introduction IV.3.E.a. The addition, "those who fear you," is known as invocation in the formula with καταξίωσον (Grégoire 1929, № 282.3, Kassos, VIth century).

 

Images

Epigraphic field 7

Position

Below Text 6. 

Lettering

Graffito, uncial. Abbreviating overline. 

Letterheights (cm)

0.8–2.5.

Text 7

Category

Invocative inscription. 

Date

2nd half of ХI–XIIth century C.E. 

Dating criteria

Epigraphical context, palaeography. 

Editions

Unpublished. 

Edition

Κ(ύρι)ε, βο-
ήθη.

Diplomatic

ΚΕΒΟ
ΗΘΗ

EpiDoc (XML)

<div type="textpart" subtype="inscription" n="7">
      <ab>
      <lb n="1"/><roleName><expan><abbr>Κ</abbr><ex>ύρι</ex><abbr>ε</abbr></expan></roleName>,
      βο<lb n="2" break="no"/>ήθη.
      </ab>
   </div> 

Translation

Lord, help.

 

Commentary

On the formula, see Introduction IV.3.E.a.

Texts 1, 3-7 were inscribed after Text 8, and among them 3 and 6 are the earliest.

 

Images

Epigraphic field 8

Position

Right of Text 3. 

Lettering

Graffito, uncial; elongated letters. Alpha with a loop, beta with decorative horizontal stroke at the bottom. Ligature sigma-tau; superscript signs. 

Letterheights (cm)

2.0–3.7.

Text 8

Category

Epitaph. 

Date

1034 C.E. 

Dating criteria

Epigraphical context. 

Editions

Unpublished. 

Edition

Ἐτελεύτη-
σεν ὁ παστὴρ τοῦ
Ἀστην ὡ καὶ Ἰωάννις, μινὴ
δεκεμ[βρί]ο κδ´, εἱμέρᾳ β´
5 vac. γ´ ἠνδ(ικτιῶνος) ἔ̣τ̣(ους) ͵[ς]φ̣μ̣[γ]´.

3: ὡ καὶ s.l.

Diplomatic

ΕΤΕΛΕΥΤΗ
ΣΕΝΟΠΑΣΤΗΡΤΟΥ
ΑΣΤΗΝΩΚΑΙΙΩΑΝΝΙΣΜΙΝΗ
ΔΕΚΕΜ[...]ΟΚΔΕΙΜΕΡΑΒ
5      ΓΗΝΔ..[.]..[.]

3: ΩΚΑΙ s.l.

EpiDoc (XML)

<div type="textpart" subtype="inscription" n="8">
      <ab>
      <lb n="1"/><g ref="#stauros"/> Ἐτελεύτη<lb n="2" break="no"/>σεν
      ὁ παστὴρ τοῦ
      <lb n="3"/>Ἀστην <hi rend="superscript">ὡ καὶ</hi>
      Ἰωάννις,
      <date>μινὴ
      <lb n="4"/><rs type="month" ref="dec">δεκεμ<supplied reason="lost">βρί</supplied>ο</rs>
      <num value="24">κδ</num>,
      εἱμέρᾳ <num value="2">β</num>
      <lb n="5"/><space unit="character"/> <num value="3">γ</num>
      <expan><abbr>ἠνδ</abbr><ex>ικτιῶνος</ex></expan>
      <expan><abbr><unclear>ἔτ</unclear></abbr><ex>ους</ex></expan>
      <num value="6543"><supplied reason="lost">ς</supplied><unclear>φμ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">γ</supplied></num></date>.

     
      </ab>
   </div> 

Translation

Died: the shepherd of Astin (?) John, on the 24th of December, Tuesday, in the 3rd indiction, year [6]54[3].

 

Commentary

1. On the formula, see Introduction IV.3.F.g.

2–3. The name Astin cannot be read with full confidence (the shape of the second letter is strange: perhaps the cutter first attempted to cut a zeta relying on his hearing (an s can sound as z before t), аnd then proceeded to correct it to a more normative spelling with sigma, or vice versa). Astin might be a toponym. It is unclear what is meant by the word παστήρ: a shepherd or priest; a similar term presbyter, accompanied by a toponym, is attested in the contemporary V 122, as well as V 202 and V 218 (XIV–XVth century).

3. On the name John, see commentary to V 64.

5. A number representing the indiction sometimes preceeds the word ἠνδ(ικτιῶνος) in Byzantine epigraphy (LBW VI 2299; IGLS 494 and 1682 (559 C.E.)). In the year date we can read phi and mu, while in 6540s since Creation, the 3rd indiction falls only on 6543, that is, 1034 C.E. (on the correspondence of years since Creation and A.D. in the Middle Byzantine period, see Introduction IV. 4. D). December 24th 1034 C.E. was Tuesday, which means that in this inscription an alternative count of weekdays was used (see Introduction IV.4.F). The year date is cut in smaller and shallower letters. The rock surface under this inscription has significantly deteriorated since the photograph that we publish here had been taken.

Elongated letters of this inscription are similar to V 11 which is close in date - 1059 C.E.

The burial, which is marked by our inscription is most likely that under the niche of the prothesis, under and somewhat to the east of the inscription.

 

Images

Epigraphic field 9

Position

Below Text 8. 

Lettering

Graffito, minuscule. 

Letterheights (cm)

0.4–4.0.

Text 9

Category

Commemoration (?). 

Date

980–981 C.E. 

Dating criteria

Epigraphical context. 

Editions

Unpublished. 

Edition

Ἔτους ͵ςυπθ´.

Diplomatic

ΕΤΟΥΣΣΥΠΘ

EpiDoc (XML)

<div type="textpart" subtype="inscription" n="9">
      <ab>
      <lb n="1"/>Ἔτους <num value="6489">ςυπθ</num>.
      </ab>
   </div> 

Translation

In the year 6489.

 

Commentary

The text is probably commemorative. The shape of the stigma is typical of the IX-XIth centuries (see commentary to V 172).

 

Images

(cc) © 2015 Andrey Vinogradov (edition), Irene Polinskaya (translation)
You may download this inscription in EpiDoc XML. (This file should validate to the EpiDoc schema.)