V 194. Theodoro. Inscription on a bread stamp, X–XIIth centuries C.E.
Th. 3.5, Diam. 11.2.
Small round panel; on the front - carved cross in the centre. Fully preserved.
Place of Origin
Basilica, northern gallery, layer 2.
1976, excavations of N.I. Barmina.
Institution and inventory
National Preserve of Tauric Chersonesos, 11/37269.
May 1999, August 2001, September 2002, September 2003, September 2004, September 2005, September 2006, September 2007.
Along the edge and around the cross.
Lapidary; minuscule letters of varying height. Ligatures: sigma-tau, mu-eta. Abbreviations.
X–XIIth centuries C.E.
Whose mouth is full of cursing, and bitterness, and fraud.
The text is verse 28 from Psalm 9, and is not otherwise attested epigraphically.
One hypothesis for explaining the function of the monument is that it was an apotropaic text meant for insertion into a wall or some other structure. Alternatively, as was kindly pointed out to me by the Reverend M. Zheltov, such a formula used to be inscribed on a special bread used for identifying a thief (see Almazov 1904). In that case, we could interpret the stone as a bread stamp. The origin of this rite would predate XIIth century.