V 175. Theodoro. Building inscription of Theodorites, 1282–1283 C. E.






Dimensions (cm)

H. 36.5, W. 66.5, Th. 12.0.

Additional description

Lines of text are crossed out; the surface is weathered. 

Place of Origin


Find place


Find context

Tabana-Dere, second line of fortifications, one of the towers, high above ground. 

Find circumstances

Before 1890, survey of A.I. Markevich and A.Ch. Steven. 

Modern location

Bakhchisaray, Crimea. 

Institution and inventory

Bakhchisaray State Historical and Cultural Preserve, AB I–1353. 


September 2004, September 2006. 

Epigraphic field


On the front. 


Lapidary; letters are somewhat uneven. Alpha with slanting crossbar and with capping horizontal bar pointing left, delta with projecting right hasta, minuscule zeta, elongated psi. Ligatures. 

Letterheights (cm)




Building inscription. 


1282–1283 C. E. 

Dating criteria

Explicit date. 


L1. Latyshev 1896, 56–57, № 47; 1.1. Latyshev 1901, 76; 2. Malitsky 1933, 15–19, fig. 3–4; 3. Vinogradov 2005a, 434–436; 3.1. Myts 2009, 31–32. 


[---]ΘΙΘΕΙ̣, ὃς ἐκ Ποήκα, ἡ {υ} Θεοδορ[ῖτη εἰς α]ἰώνιον μ̣-
νῆμα. Ἐπὴ καβαλάρηο[ι] ἔπειραν β´ ζεύγη βωο͂ν, τὸν ζευγελά-
[τ]ην ἐφώνεψαν: κὲ ὁς τὸ ἤκουσεν, ἠς Βαρζάρους ἔξερε ἀπὸ μη-
κροῦ ἕος μεγάλου{ς}: κ(αὶ) ἐδίωξαν ὀπήσο αὐτοὺς ἕος τοῦ μέρους
5κ(αὶ) τέο[ς] τοῦ θεοφηλάκ̣του κάστρου Θεοδόρου: κὲ κατεδήο-
ξαν κὲ κατέκοψαν αὐτοὺς ἕος τοῦ Ζαζαλε κ(αὶ) μέρους ια´: τ̣ο̣
κα̣ὶ̣ ἤκουσα̣ν̣ [. 4.] κὲ τὸν κε [...]ΟΝ.ΚΕΝΗ.ΟΥ[---]
ἐπ̣ὶ ἔτους ͵ςψϞα´, --- Ε[...]ΣΙ---ΟΣ. ἴκουσαν κὲ [. 6.]μος



EpiDoc (XML)

<div type="edition" xml:lang="grc">
      <lb n="1"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig>θιθε<unclear>ι</unclear></orig>,
      ὃς ἐκ Ποήκα,
      ἡ <surplus>υ</surplus>
      Θεοδορ<supplied reason="lost">ῖτη</supplied>
      <supplied reason="lost">εἰς</supplied>
      <supplied reason="lost">α</supplied>ἰώνιον
      <unclear>μ</unclear><lb n="2" break="no"/>νῆμα. Ἐπὴ
      καβαλάρηο<supplied reason="lost">ι</supplied>
      ἔπειραν <num value="2">β</num> ζεύγη 
      βωο͂ν, τὸν ζευγελά<lb n="3" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">τ</supplied>ην ἐφώνεψαν:
      ὁς τὸ ἤκουσεν, ἠς
      Βαρζάρους ἔξερε ἀπὸ
      μη<lb n="4" break="no"/>κροῦ ἕος μεγάλου<surplus>ς</surplus>:
      <expan><abbr>κ</abbr><ex>αὶ</ex></expan> ἐδίωξαν
      ὀπήσο αὐτοὺς
      ἕος τοῦ μέρους
      <lb n="5"/><expan><abbr>κ</abbr><ex>αὶ</ex></expan>
      τέο<supplied reason="lost">ς</supplied>
      τοῦ θεοφηλά<unclear>κ</unclear>του
      Θεοδόρου: κὲ
      κατεδήο<lb n="6" break="no"/>ξαν κὲ κατέκοψαν
      αὐτοὺς ἕος τοῦ
      μέρους <num value="11">ια</num>: <unclear>το</unclear>
      <lb n="7"/>κ<unclear>α</unclear><unclear>ὶ</unclear>
      <gap reason="lost" quantity="4" unit="character"/> κὲ τὸν
      <gap reason="lost" quantity="3" unit="character"/><orig>ον</orig><gap reason="illegible" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>κενη</orig><gap reason="illegible" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>ου</orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
      <lb n="8"/>ἐ<unclear>π</unclear>ὶ <date>ἔτους
      <num value="6811">ςψϞα</num>,</date>
      <gap reason="illegible" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
      <orig>ε</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="3" unit="character"/><orig>σι</orig><gap reason="illegible" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig>οσ</orig>.
      ἴκουσαν κὲ
      <gap reason="lost" quantity="6" unit="character"/><w part="F">μος</w>
      <lb n="9"/><gap reason="illegible" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig>Υ</orig><gap reason="illegible" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
Apparatus criticus

1: ....ΘΕ....Α.ΝΘ..ΑΝ ὑ Latyshev, Malitsky; υ´ (?) Vinogradov; ...καν? resp. ...ψαν ? resp. ἐν Πόηκαν ? Malitsky; ἰσ- Latyshev
2: ......ΚΑΒΑ......... Latyshev; .... η καβαλαρηα .... Malitsky; καβαλαρίων Vinogradov; ἔπειραν Vinogradov; ι´ Malitsky; το͂ν Latyshev
2-3: αην Latyshev
3: ὁς τὸ Vinogradov
3-4: σε ..ΚΑ ΕΝ.. βαρ[β]άρους ἐξε....ΟΜΗΤΟΥΣ ὡς Latyshev
4: μεγάλους ? Latyshev; ΟΡΗ.ΟΛΥ... Latyshev 1896; corr. Latyshev 1901; Νεώρου Latyshev; Μηδηους Malitsky
5: κ(αὶ) τέο[ς] Vinogradov; om. alii
5-6: ΚΑΚ...ΙΣΟΑΝ Latyshev; καὶ ... ἤκουσεν Vinogradov
6: [κ]ατέ[κ]οψαν ? Latyshev; ΕΟ. Latyshev; ...ΑΛΕΙ ΜΕΡΗΣΙΑ... Latyshev; μερης Malitsky; κὲ ? Malitsky
7: ............... αὐτὸν ........... Latyshev; ... Malitsky
8: ἐπὶ (?) Vinogradovom. alii; ςω.. ? Latyshev, Malitsky; ςωι(?)α Vinogradov; ςωθ(?)α Myts; ........μος κὲ φανερὰς .. Latyshev
9: ... θ(εο)ῦ ..............ΤΟΡΕΟ.. Latyshev; ... Malitsky


For [...] who is from Poeka, Theodorites (set this up) for eternal commemoration. Because horsemen had apprehended two ox-carts and killed the oxherd, so when he heard about this, he then alerted everyone in Barzaroi, from the young to the old. And they pursued them to the District and to the God-protected fortress Theodoro, and they caught up with them and cut them down, to Zazale and the 11th District. And they heard this... and... in the year 6791... heard and...



The inscription, which had been purposely placed in the wall of the tower, was later deliberately effaced (see below): the text was crossed out with lines cut across the letters. This fact complicates the reading of the text and explains the large number of mistakes made by Latyshev and Malitsky. The colloquial language used in the text compounds the difficulty of its interpretation: there are dialectal (ἐφώνεψαν) and colloquial (το) forms. The inscription was first mentioned by its discoverer, F.A. Braun, who had worked out only the three words before last in line 5 (Braun 1893, 19).

1-2. The inscription is commemorative and dedicated by Theodorites to a native of Poeka (Poika), whose name is unfortunately illegible (judging by the last letters, it was non-Greek). Thus, we have another confirmation of the importance of Poika in the early period of Theodoro's existence. The absence of a mention of the tower's construction suggests that the inscription was not a building inscription as such, but a commemoration of the benefactor from Poika.

2–7. The inscription reports a raid by some mounted enemies who stole two yokes of oxen and killed the driver. The hero of our inscription, together with people from Barzaroi (judging by V 173 (1188 C.E.), it was a region to the west of Mangup), pursued the raiders and caught up with them near the District and Theodoro, and then pursued them to Zazale and the 11th District. These districts are certainly territorial units of the Theodorite state, mentioned in V 224. The 11th district seems to be the furthermost one, while The District (τὸ μέρος), that is, apparently the 1st District, must coincide with the centre, that is the city of Theodoro.

8. The digits of the year are very hard to make out, and they were originally interpreted by me incorrectly. The inscription dates to 1282–1283 C.E., that is, the earliest period of Theodorite history. In connection with this, the date of the inscription of Chuitanes from Poika (V 176) should also be considered.

For the historical commentary, see Myts 2009, 31–32.



(cc) © 2015 Andrey Vinogradov (edition), Irene Polinskaya (translation)
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