I 7. Tyras. Fragment of a decree (?), 147 C.E.

Monument

Type

Panel. 

Material

Marble, gray. 

Dimensions (cm)

H. 30.5, W. 20.8, Th. 4.8-5.0.

Additional description

The front is polished, the back is roughly picked. Left side is treated summarily, showing tooth chisel marks, the bottom is roughly picked. Three joining fragments. Serious fire damage: soot and cracks. In the lower part, multiple deep gashes or notches. 

Place of Origin

Tyras. 

Find place

Belgorod-Dnestrovsky. 

Find context

Central Trench, in a building dated to the period of the Golden Horde. 

Find circumstances

Found in 2003, excavations of T.L. Samoylova. 

Modern location

Odessa. 

Institution and inventory

Department of Archaeology of the Northern Black Sea Coast, Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, field catalogue number - БТЭ-03, сп. 35, № 609. 

Autopsy

A.I. Ivantchik, August 2006. 

Epigraphic field

Position

On the front. Broken of all sides, except the bottom and left. Defaced and damaged by fire. Margins: left 2,8; bottom 13,2. H. 15.5, W. 18.0

Lettering

Letters are quite neatly and evenly cut, although no ruled lines are visible. Serifs and decorative horizontal strokes on the ends of hastae. Omicron is, in one case, much smaller (1,0cm) than other letters. Two shapes of sigma (rectangular and lunate) are used. Phi with upward and downward extended vertical. Average distance between lines: 1,0cm.  

Letterheights (cm)

2.1-2.3

Text

Category

Decree (?) 

Date

147 C.E. 

Dating criteria

Explicit date. 

Editions

Ineditum. 

Edition

[---]
[. 5.]Η̣Δ[---]
[...]Ϲ̣ 𐆖 φ´ ἐ̣γ̣[ένητο ἐν Τύρᾳ Γ(αίῳ) Πραστείνῳ Μεσσαλείνῳ καὶ Λ(ουκίῳ) Ἀννίῳ Λάρ-]
[γῳ] ὑ̣πάτοις vac. [ὡς δὲ Τυρανοὶ ἄγουσιν]
[ἔ]τ̣ους αϙ´ vac. [ἀρχόντων δὲ τῶν περὶ]
5ΕΙ[.]Ι[.]ΛΟΙ[---]

Diplomatic

[---]
[·····][---]
[···].𐆖Φ..[...........................................-]
[..].ΠΑΤΟΙΣ      [..................]
[.].ΟΥΣΑϘ      [.................]
5ΕΙ[·]Ι[·]ΛΟΙ[---]

EpiDoc (XML)

<div type="edition" xml:lang="grc">
   <ab>
      		<lb n="0"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
      		<lb n="1"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="5" unit="character"/><orig><unclear>Η</unclear>Δ</orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
      		<lb n="2"/><gap reason="lost" quantity="3" unit="character"/><orig><unclear>Ϲ</unclear></orig> <g ref="#denarius"/> <num value="500">φ</num> 
            <unclear>ἐγ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">ένητο</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">ἐν Τύρᾳ</supplied> 
            <supplied reason="lost"><expan><abbr>Γ</abbr><ex>αίῳ</ex></expan> 
            Πραστείνῳ Μεσσαλείνῳ 
            καὶ</supplied> 
            <supplied reason="lost"><expan><abbr>Λ</abbr><ex>ουκίῳ</ex></expan> 
            Ἀννίῳ</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">Λάρ</supplied>
      		<lb n="3" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">γῳ</supplied> <unclear>ὑ</unclear>πάτοις <space extent="unknown" unit="character"/> 
            <supplied reason="lost">ὡς δὲ Τυρανοὶ ἄγουσιν</supplied>
      		<lb n="4"/><supplied reason="lost">ἔ</supplied><unclear>τ</unclear>ους <num value="91"><hi rend="supraline">αϙ</hi></num> 
            <space extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <supplied reason="lost">ἀρχόντων δὲ τῶν περὶ</supplied>
      		<lb n="5"/><orig>ΕΙ</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>Ι</orig><gap reason="lost" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>ΛΟΙ</orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
   </ab>
   </div> 
 
Apparatus criticus

Translation

[- - -] 500 denarii. Took pl[ace in Tyras], when consuls [were G. Prasteinus Messalina and L. Annius Largus, and as citizens of Tyras hold], in 91st year, [when archons were under the leadership of - - -]

 

Commentary

The category of the document is uncertain, possibly a decree, and its preserved ending contains a dating formula.

2-4. The key to the restoration of these two lines is in the last letters of line 4: this is the numeral 91, which in combination with preceding letters unequivocally suggests a date according to the local era of Tyras. Considering what appears to be a standard form of dating in public documents (see I 2), we should restore a date according to Roman consuls before the date according to the local era of Tyras, and following that, the date according to eponymous archon. The 91st year of the Tyras era corresponds to 147 C.E.; this allows us to restore before the word ὑ̣πάτοις preserved in line 3 the names of Roman consuls for that year (Gaius Prastina Messalinus and Lucius Annius Largus). It is difficult to know how fully their names would have been presented (the restoration here is therefore approximate). The length of the lines is also impossible to determine due to the vacat of unknown size in lines 3 and 4, which served to separate the parallel dating formulae we have discussed.

 

Images

(cc) © 2017 Askold Ivantchik (edition), Irene Polinskaya (translation)
You may download this inscription in EpiDoc XML. (This file should validate to the EpiDoc schema.)