I 29. Tyras. Honorific inscription for Autokles, son of Oiniades, 1st half of III century B.C.E.






Dimensions (cm)

H. 28.0, W. 64.0, Th. 40.0.

Additional description

The block is part of a statue base, apparently, for an equestrian statue. The upper part is articulated by a cornice (H. 12,5cm) with an elaborate profile (H. 5,0cm). The front is well worked, but not polished. The cornice shows tooth chisel marks. The right side is also well worked. The top and bottom are treated summarily. The left, right and back are broken off. The back was partly reworked for secondary use.`On the top, at the break on the left, there are two depressions, probably, dowel holes for fixing the statue: a shallow rectangular one and a deep one for a dowel ending in swallowtail. The side shows fire damage, traces of soot. In the vicinity of this block, another one was found, forming the lower part of the same base. Its faces were summarily treated, in a manner similar to the top and bottom surfaces of the first block. The lower part is articulated on the bottom with an elaborately profiled moulding, different from the cornice on the upper part of the base. The front and left side are preserved, the right and back are broken off. Dimensions: 17 х 53 х 41. 

Place of Origin


Find place


Find context

The very north of the Central trench (grid square IV Д, 4-ЮВ, 5-ЮЗ, field catalogue No. БД-87-31), in the foundation course of masonry № 466, dated to the III century B.C.E. 

Find circumstances

Found in 1987, excavations of I.B. Kleyman. 

Modern location


Institution and inventory

Odessa Archaeological Museum, 90111. 


A.I. Ivantchik, August 2006. 

Epigraphic field 1


On the front, which was apparently the longer side of a rectangular base. On the vertical surface of the cornice. Only the right half survives. Margins: top 2,5; right 15,6; bottom 4,1cm. H. 10.17, W. 16.7


Neatly and evenly cut letters, with light serifs. Alpha with straight crossbar, epsilon with short middle bar, dotted theta, smaller than other letters, just as omicron and omega, outer hastae of mu are almost vertical and slant very slightly, the wedges of semicircular omega are drawn together. Average distance between lines: 0,5cm. 

Letterheights (cm)


Epigraphic field 2


On the front, which was apparently the longer side of a rectangular base. On the base, below the cornice, filling all the preserved surface. Broken off on the left, the bottom line is partly damaged. The inscription continued on the block that adjoined the one published here. Margins: top 4,5; right 0,5cm. H. 10.2, W. 40.7


Neatly and evenly cut letters, with light serifs. Alpha with a straight crossbar, epsilon with short middle bar, omicron and omega smaller than other letters, outer hastae of mu are almost vertical and slant very slightly, nu with short right hasta, bent outwards, pi with short right vertical and the horizontal that does not extend beyond the verticals, upper and lower bars of sigma slightly splayed, but sometimes are nearly horizontal, semicircular omega with straight horzontals. Average distance between lines: 0,4cm. 

Letterheights (cm)




Honorific inscription. 


1st half of III century B.C.E. 

Dating criteria



L1. Vinogradov 1999; 1.2. SEG 49, 1051. 


[---] δ̣ᾶμος vac. 2 litt.
[---] vac. 9 litt.
[---].. ἔργα vac. 6 litt.
[---]Γ̣ΩΝ vac. 9 litt.
5[---]ΟΥΔΕ μέγα αὐχεῖν
[---]ε̣α vac. 11 litt.
[Ἔδοξε τῆι βουλῆι καὶ τῶι δήμωι ---, μηνὸς Καλα]μαιῶνος ἑνδεκάτηι, Ἀπολλᾶς Ἡροδότου εἶπεν· ἐπειδὴ Αὐτοκ<λ>ῆς Οἰνι-
[άδου? ἀνὴρ ἀγαθὸς ὑπάρχων παρέχεται τῶι δ]ήμωι πολλὰς καὶ μεγάλας χρείας εἰς μ<εγ>ίστην ἀσφάλειαν καὶ σωτηρίαν
[τῆς πόλεως κοινῆι καὶ ἰδίαι --- τοῖ]ς̣ πο̣λίταις μετὰ πάσης εὐνοίας, εἰς ἃ ἂν παρακαλῆται, προθύμως ὑπα-
[κούει, ---]ν̣θαι κατοικοῦντες τὸ Νικώνεον ἐγλιπόντες τὸν τόπον διὰ τὴν
5[---] ἀποστα[λεὶ]ς πρεσβευτὴς εἰς Ἴστρον ὑπὲρ ἀναστάσεως καὶ ἐνοι-
[κήσεως αὐτῶν --- συνέ]π̣εισε τὸν δῆμον τὸν Ἰστριανῶν οὐκ οὔσης ἀπαγωγῆς εἰς τροφὴν ΑΠΑ
[--- κατ]ά̣γειν κατὰ θάλασσαν οὐ δυνηθεὶς δόμα τὸ κατειληφέν{δ}<α>ι
[ἐνδέον? --- δι]ασώισας, ἕως μ[ό]νον Α .. ΤΗΝΓΠΡΕ.ΙΣΑΛΟΜ...

1: orig. ΑΥΤΟΚΗΣ; 2: orig. ΜΙΣΤΗΝ; 7: orig. ΚΑΤΕΙΛΗΦΕΝΙ



1: orig. ΑΥΤΟΚΗΣ; 2: orig. ΜΙΣΤΗΝ; 7: orig. ΚΑΤΕΙΛΗΦΕΝΙ

EpiDoc (XML)

<div type="textpart" subtype="fragment" n="A"> <ab> <lb n="1"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <unclear>δ</unclear>ᾶμος <space quantity="2" unit="character"/> <lb n="2"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <space quantity="9" unit="character"/> <lb n="3"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><gap reason="illegible" quantity="2" unit="character"/> ἔργα <space quantity="6" unit="character"/> <lb n="4"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig><unclear>Γ</unclear>ΩΝ</orig> <space quantity="9" unit="character"/> <lb n="5"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig>ΟΥΔΕ</orig> μέγα αὐχεῖν <lb n="6"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><w part="F"><unclear>ε</unclear>α</w> <space quantity="11" unit="character"/> </ab> </div>
<div type="textpart" subtype="fragment" n="B"> <ab> <lb n="1"/><supplied reason="lost">Ἔδοξε τῆι βουλῆι καὶ τῶι δήμωι</supplied> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character" cert="low"/><supplied reason="lost">, </supplied> <supplied reason="lost">μηνὸς</supplied> <rs type="month" ref="kalamaion"><supplied reason="lost">Καλα</supplied>μαιῶνος</rs> ἑνδεκάτηι, Ἀπολλᾶς Ἡροδότου εἶπεν· ἐπειδὴ Αὐτοκ<supplied reason="omitted">λ</supplied>ῆς Οἰνι <lb n="2" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost" cert="low">άδου</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">ἀνὴρ ἀγαθὸς ὑπάρχων παρέχεται τῶι</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">δ</supplied>ήμωι πολλὰς καὶ μεγάλας χρείας εἰς μ<supplied reason="omitted">εγ</supplied>ίστην ἀσφάλειαν καὶ σωτηρίαν <lb n="3"/><supplied reason="lost">τῆς πόλεως κοινῆι καὶ ἰδίαι</supplied> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <supplied reason="lost">τοῖ</supplied><unclear>ς</unclear> π<unclear>ο</unclear>λίταις μετὰ πάσης εὐνοίας, εἰς ἃ ἂν παρακαλῆται, προθύμως ὑπα <lb n="4" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">κούει,</supplied> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><w part="F"><unclear>ν</unclear>θαι</w> κατοικοῦντες τὸ Νικώνεον ἐγλιπόντες τὸν τόπον διὰ τὴν <lb n="5"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> ἀποστα<supplied reason="lost">λεὶ</supplied>ς πρεσβευτὴς εἰς Ἴστρον ὑπὲρ ἀναστάσεως καὶ ἐνοι <lb n="6" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">κήσεως</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">αὐτῶν</supplied> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <supplied reason="lost">συνέ</supplied><unclear>π</unclear>εισε τὸν δῆμον τὸν Ἰστριανῶν οὐκ οὔσης ἀπαγωγῆς εἰς τροφὴν <orig>ΑΠΑ</orig> <lb n="7"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <supplied reason="lost">κατ</supplied><unclear>ά</unclear>γειν κατὰ θάλασσαν οὐ δυνηθεὶς δόμα τὸ κατειληφέν<surplus>δ</surplus><supplied reason="omitted">α</supplied>ι <lb n="8"/><supplied reason="lost" cert="low">ἐνδέον</supplied> <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <supplied reason="lost">δι</supplied>ασώισας, ἕως μ<supplied reason="lost">ό</supplied>νον <orig>Α</orig> <gap reason="illegible" quantity="2" unit="character"/> <orig>ΤΗΝΓΠΡΕ</orig><gap reason="illegible" quantity="1" unit="character"/><orig>ΙΣΑΛΟΜ</orig><gap reason="illegible" quantity="3" unit="character"/> <lb n="8a"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/> </ab> </div>


Apparatus criticus

3: πο]λ̣ὺ̣ ἔργα ? Vinogradov
5: τ]οῦδε vel ]ου δὲ Vinogradov 2: δ]ήμ{ο}⟨ω⟩ι Vinogradov; μίστην (sic) Vinogradov; μ⟨εγ⟩ίστην vel εἰς {μισ} τὴν
3: ἰδίαι τὰ ἀξιούμενα τοῖ]ς̣ Vinogradov
4: [κούει, ὡς δὲ e.g. ἠναγκάσθησαν ἡμῖν συνεπιφά]νθαι Vinogradov
5: [e.g. εἰσ/ἐμ/ἐπιβολὴν τῶν δείνων - - -] Vinogradov
6: [κήσεως αὐτῶν σῖτον ἱκανὸν διδόναι συνέ]π̣εισε; Ἰστριανῶν, καὶ οὐκ Vinogradov
7: [γωγίμου σίτου (?) - - - κατ]άγειν Vinogradov; κατ]άγειν κατὰ θάλασσαν οὐ δυνηθεὶς (τὸ) δόμα ⟨διὰ⟩ τὸ κατειληφέν⟨α⟩ι | [e.g. τοὺς βαρβάρους τὰ πλοῖα?
8: μ[ό]νον [- - -]Α.ΤΗΝ Vinogradov



[- - -] People [- - -] works [- - -] declare loudly [- - -]


[The Council and the People? decided. In the month Kala]maion, on the 11th. Apollas, (son of) Herodotos proposed: since Autokles, (son of) Oini[ades, being a noble man, renders for the Pe]ople many and great services, aimed at the greatest security and salvation [of the polis as a whole, and in specific cases - - -] to the citizens with every kindness, in whatever he is be called upon, he eagerly lends [his ear - - -] inhabitants of Nikonion, leaving the place due to [- - -] sent as an ambassador to Histria regarding the rising (or removal) and dwel[ling in - - - con]vinced the People of Histria, but since there was no payment for the provisions of food [- - -] to transport by sea; unable ... the payment (or gift?) that was [necessary?] to collect [- - - having pre]served, until only [- - -]



The first part of the inscription was probably an epigram of six lines, of which only the endings remain, or nothing at all, as in line 2. This makes it nearly impossible to restore the text; only isolated words can be made out: People, δᾶμος in the Dorian form, attested in poetic texts, as well as some "works" (probably of the honorand) and the expression "proclaim loudly." Paralles are cited in Vinogradov 1999, 54.

The second half of the inscription reproduces the decree honouring Autokles, in accordance with which the statue on this inscribed base was probably set up. Judging by the size of the base, the statue was probably equestrian (Vinogradov 1999, 51-53). The dimensions of the lost part of the inscription, are impossible to determine; the size of the lacunae is unclear, and so both longer and shorter possibilities for the restoration of the text are conceivable. For this reason, the restorations proposed by Vinogradov are partly hypothetical. I have adopted only the most plausible ones in my edition, listing others in the Apparatus criticus.

B 1. The month Καλαμαιών is the third month of the year in the Milesian calendar; it is attested in the calendar of the neighbrouing Olbia: vinogradov, Rusyaeva 1980, 25-38, with bibliography. In the name of Autokles, lambda is omitted. The patronymic is restored tentatively; any name beginning with Οἰνι- is possible, see LGPN, s.v. The name Οἰνιάδης is only the most common of such names. 2. Despite Vinogradov's remark, there is no mistake in the word δ]ήμωι – omega is clear on the stone, although his published photo suggests an omicron. The formula restored in the lacuna can be expanded to a more frequently attested: ἀνὴρ καλὸς κἀγαθὸς ὑπάρχων. Vinogradov discusses this variant in his publication, but prefers the shorter variant in his edition.

Vinogradov argues that we should accept the reading μίστην, supposing a phonetic development here: μεγίστην > με-j-ίστην > μείστην > μίστην. In principle, cases where intervocalic gamma is used to convey spirant j in intervocalic position, and specifically between e and i, are indeed attested from the IV century B.C.E., in Attic inscriptions among others, while it is also quite common in Egyptian papyri from the II century B.C.E. (Mayser 1906, 163-168; Schwyzer 1939, 209; Lejeune 1955, 47). It is, however, difficult to envision such a phonetic development in our case, not least because of the lack of parallels in the region under consideration or in neighbouring regions. More likely is the supposition of Pleket that we are dealing with a stonecutter's mistake, since there are two more such mistakes in the text.

4. Vinogradov's restoration is not entirely secure. His point that the ending -]νθαι is only possible in verbs derived from φαίνω, which is the basis of his restoration, is faulty, since perfect infinitives of many verbes with n-base have such endings. His other point, however, is well taken, namely that the use of such words as κατοικοῦντες and τὸν τόπον Nikonion with respect to Nikonion suggest that it did not have the status of an independent polis and most likely was part of the polis of Tyras (contra Ruscu 2004, 38-40, сf. SEG 54, 707, A. Chaniotis).

6. Vinogradov's restoration here is based on his understanding of the word ἀπαγωγή as "vehicle for transportation." As far as I am aware, such usage is not attested: according to LSJ, aside from technical usage in the Athenian legal system and in logic, the word means "leading away" (of an army, prisoners), "abduction" (of women), "removal," or "payment." It is the last sense that seems most fitting in our context. In that case, however, the meaning of the text is altered: we are dealing not with a gift of the Histrians, but with the purchase (most likely, from them) of food provisions and the inability to pay for them.

7. The word δόμα in this context may also have two senses: either "gift" (as Vinogradov) or "payment." If we follow Vinogradov, we would expect an article before the word. In general, the meaning of the text is less clear to me than it appeared to Vinogradov. It refers to inhabitants of Nikonion, who had left their city for unknown reasons, and about negotiations between Histria and Tyras, related to that. A supposition that Autokles managed to receive a gift of grain from Histria does not seem to me to follow from the text. More likely, we are deling with a purchase of food provision and some difficulties, concerning the financial side of the transaction. At the time of the inscribing, Nikonion in all likelihood was not an independent polis (or, in any case, was not so considered by Tyras) and was probably part of the polis of Tyras.



(cc) © 2017 Askold Ivantchik (edition), Irene Polinskaya (translation)
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