I 5. Tyras. Proxeny decree for Herodoros, II century B.C.E.





Marble, white with gray veins. 

Dimensions (cm)

H. 20.6, W. 16.5, Th. 7.7.

Additional description

The front is polished, but considerably defaced on the left. The right side is treated summarily with tooth chisel, the back is roughly picked, other sides are broken off. 

Place of Origin


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Find circumstances

Unknown. Given to the museum in 1985 by V.P. Pushkarev. 

Modern location


Institution and inventory

Odessa Archaeological Museum, 88748. 


A.I. Ivantchik, August 2007. 

Epigraphic field


H. 15.5, W. 15.0


Deeply and precisely cut letters, following ruled lines still visible on the stone; light serifs. Alpha with broken crossbar, dotted theta, kappa with short diagonals, pi with shortened right vertical, sigma with parallel upper and lower bars, omega with straight horizontals. Right margin is almost absent. Average distance between lines: 0,6cm. 

Letterheights (cm)




Proxeny decree. 


II century B.C.E. 

Dating criteria





[---]Δ̣ . Υ̣
[---] ἐ̣μβοᾶν χρή̣
[---ἐάν] τινος δέη - vac. 1 litt.
[ται· ἵνα οὖν ὁ δῆμος φαίνηται τοὺς κ]α̣λοὺς καὶ ἀγα̣-
5[θοὺς ἄνδρας τιμῶν· δεδόχθαι τῆ]ι βουλῆι καὶ τῶι
[δήμωι ἐπαινέσαι μὲν ἐπὶ το]ύτοις Ἡρόδω - vac. 1 litt.
[ρον τοῦ δεῖνος ---]α̣νὸν δεδόσθαι vac. 1 litt.
[δὲ αὐτῶι προξενίαν, πολιτ]ε̣ίαν, προεδρίαν, [ἀτ-]
[έλειαν πάντων καὶ τἄλλα] ὅσ̣[α] κ̣αὶ τοῖς ἄ[λλοις]
10[προξένοις---]Κ̣ ..Α̣Ο̣[---]



EpiDoc (XML)

<div type="edition" xml:lang="grc">
      		<lb n="0"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
      		<lb n="1"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig><unclear>Δ</unclear></orig> 
            <gap reason="illegible" quantity="1" unit="character"/> <orig><unclear>Υ</unclear></orig>
      		<lb n="2"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/> <unclear>ἐ</unclear>μβοᾶν χρ<unclear>ή</unclear>
      		<lb n="3"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><supplied reason="lost">ἐάν</supplied> 
            τινος δέη <space quantity="1" unit="character"/>
      		<lb n="4" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ται·</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">ἵνα οὖν ὁ δῆμος 
            φαίνηται τοὺς</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">κ</supplied><unclear>α</unclear>λοὺς 
            καὶ ἀγ<unclear>α</unclear>
      		<lb n="5" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">θοὺς</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">ἄνδρας τιμῶν· δεδόχθαι</supplied> 
            <supplied reason="lost">τῆ</supplied>ι βουλῆι καὶ τῶι
      		<lb n="6"/><supplied reason="lost">δήμωι ἐπαινέσαι μὲν ἐπὶ</supplied> 
            <supplied reason="lost">το</supplied>ύτοις Ἡρόδω <space quantity="1" unit="character"/>
      		<lb n="7" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">ρον</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">τοῦ δεῖνος</supplied> 
            <gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><seg part="F"><unclear>α</unclear>νὸν</seg> 
            δεδόσθαι <space quantity="1" unit="character"/>
      		<lb n="8"/><supplied reason="lost">δὲ αὐτῶι προξενίαν,</supplied> 
            <supplied reason="lost">πολιτ</supplied><unclear>ε</unclear>ίαν, προεδρίαν, <supplied reason="lost">ἀτ</supplied>
      		<lb n="9" break="no"/><supplied reason="lost">έλειαν</supplied> <supplied reason="lost">πάντων καὶ τἄλλα</supplied> 
            ὅ<unclear>σ</unclear><supplied reason="lost">α</supplied> <unclear>κ</unclear>αὶ τοῖς 
            ἄ<supplied reason="lost">λλοις</supplied>
      		<lb n="10"/><supplied reason="lost">προξένοις</supplied><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/><orig><unclear>Κ</unclear></orig> <gap reason="illegible" quantity="2" unit="character"/><orig><unclear>ΑΟ</unclear></orig><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="character"/>
      		<lb n="10a"/><gap reason="lost" extent="unknown" unit="line"/>
Apparatus criticus


[- - -] it is necessary to call upon? [- - - if] there would be a need of something; [in order that the People may be seen to honour] the noble and good [men, the Council and the People shall deem it good to praise on the basis of these Herodo[ros, (son of) - - -] to grant [him proxeny, citizen]ship, proedria, [exemption from all public burdens (ateleia) and all other privileges] which [are available to proxenoi - - -]



The fragment apparently constitues the end of a proxeny decree. The first three lines probably contain the ending of the motivation clause. Begining in line 4, the proposal is stated. Since not a single complete line is preserved, we cannot determine the length of the line, however, lines 6-7, where the honorand is mentioned, allow us to make a guess. The ending of his name appears at the end of line 6 - Ἡρόδω-, which allows a secure restoration of the name Herodoros (a single variant in LGPN). This means that in the lacuna at the start of line 7, we can expect 3 letters, then his patronymic and an ethnicon. The ending of the ethnicon appears immediately after the lacuna: α̣νὸν before δεδόσθαι can hardly be anything else. There are many possibilities for the restoration of an ethnicon, both including the poleis of the Black Sea region and those outside it, so it is unnecessary to single out any particular one. It is unlikely that the patronymic and the beginning of the ethnicon together consisted of more than 20 letters, which gives us about 36-37 symbols per line. This estimate provides a measure for attempts at restoration, and it gives us quite short lines. At the same time, since the spacing between individual symbols differs from line to line (see e.g. lines 4 and 6), we may expect considerable departures from the estimated average.

2. The sequence of letters .ΜΒΟΑΝ is difficult to see as anything other than ἐ̣μβοᾶν, an infinitive of the verb ἐμβοάω, "to summon, to call loudly." As far as I know, this verb, quite common in literature, has not yet been attested in epigraphic sources, so it is impossible to suggest a context for restoration in the absence of analogies. The combination of letters that follows can be read as the beginning of the word χρήσιμος, common in honorific decrees.

6. The restoration δήμωι τῶι Τυρανῶν suggests itself, however, it is too long for the lacuna, especially as we see that in this line the density of letters is less than in other lines.

7. The restoration of the standard formula αὐτῶι καὶ ἐκγόνοις is also impossible due to the lack of space in the lacuna.

9. The formula ἀτέλειαν πάντων, although it seems to be unattested in the northern Black Sea area, is widely known elsewhere. See e.g. in the Aegean Thrace: I. Aeg. Thrac. 451, 13-14 (2nd hald of III cent. B.C.E., cf. I. Aeg. Thrac. 9, 38, II cent. B.C.E., restored); IG II2, 286 (IV cent. B.C.E.); IK Kios 2, 7 (mis-IV cent. B.C.E) etc.



(cc) © 2017 Askold Ivantchik (edition), Irene Polinskaya (translation)
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